16 Jan 2011
While Tunisians took time to savour the moment, or enjoy their release from detention, or book a emotional flight home, the Twitterverse slipped into post-game pundit mode to consider Friday’s dramatic events in the North African state.
Mindful of the lazy analysis that gave social media undeserved credit for fomenting Iran’s Twitter revolution that wasn’t, there was no rush to be fooled twice by the wave of chatter under the #sidibouzid hash tag that had followed each new development in Tunisia.
v [T] formal
to cause trouble to develop
The song was banned on the grounds that it might foment racial tension.
(Definition of foment verb from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)}
Sidi Bouzid was the town where a despairing jobless ex-student set himself alight in December, killing himself and setting off weeks of violence that culminated in Friday’s flight of despot president Zine el Abidene Ben Ali.
/ˈdes.pɒt/ /-pɑːt/ n [C]
a person, especially a ruler, who has unlimited power over other people, and often uses it unfairly and cruelly
an evil despot
The king was regarded as having been a enlightened despot.
See also: tyrant
/dɪˈspɒt.ɪk/ /desˈpɑː.t ̬ɪk/ adj
a despotic government/regime
/dɪˈspɒt.ɪ.kli/ /desˈpɑː.t ̬ɪ-/ adv
/ˈdes.pə.tɪ.zəm/ /-t ̬ɪ-/ n [U]
After years of despotism, the country is now moving towards democracy.]
Al Jazeera satellite tv was relentless in its coverage, even as Tunisia’s own media stayed resolutely silent. Twitter and 3G phones played their parts and to fill the rest of the information gap left by the pro-state press, Tunisians used well honed circumvention skills to read websites blocked by one of the region’s most advanced web censorship systems.
continuing in a severe or extreme way
She has campaigned relentlessly for her husband’s release from prison.]
But Tunisia is a well networked country at a human level too. Young, highly educated, technically savvy, every sector of society has its own community of articulate, engaged critics of the regime. Actors, lawyers, musicians, teachers, trades unionists, most of whom ignored the official press and were unimpressed by state sanctioned broadcasters.
engaged adjective ( INVOLVED/BUSY )
[after verb] involved in something
They’ve been engaged in a legal battle with the council for several months.
She’s part of a team of scientists who are engaged on/upon cancer research.
[after verb] formal busy doing something
I’d come to the meeting on Tuesday but I’m afraid I’m otherwise engaged (= doing something else).
(Definition of engaged adjective (INVOLVED/BUSY) from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
These loosely networked groups were countered by gaggles of made-up organisations founded and funded by the regime to give thin support to its works, wryly named GONGOs or Government Organised Non-Governmental Organisations.
/ˈkaʊn.tər / /-t ̬ɚ/ v [I or T]
to react to something with an opposing opinion or action; to defend yourself against something
The Prime Minister countered the opposition’s claims about health service cuts by saying that the government had increased spending in this area.
When criticisms were made of the school’s performance, the parents’ group countered with details of its examination results.
Extra police have been moved into the area to counter the risk of violence.
(Definition of counter verb from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
/raɪ/ adj [before noun]
showing that you find a bad or difficult situation slightly funny
a wry smile/comment
(Definition of wry adjective from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
Independents who tried to turn their networks into active civil society groups were prevented from legally registering and thus effectively banned. Those few already registered — such as the Tunisian League for Human Rights (LTDH), the Middle East’s oldest human rights group — or the country’s journalists’ union, found themselves organisationally shackled by a series of arcane legal challenges.
/ɑːˈkeɪn/ /ɑːr-/ adj formal
mysterious and known only by a few people
He was the only person who understood all the arcane details of the agreement.
This argument may seem arcane to those not closely involved in the world of finance.
(Definition of arcane adjective from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
Denial of the right to freedom of association was enforced by the denial of another right, that of a fair hearing before an independent judiciary. Defying international practice, the president’s representatives handpicked judges, punishing those who failed to deliver regime-friendly verdicts with banishment to minor circuit courts the other side of the country.
Yet walking through Tunis’ Palace of Justice last month with independent lawyer Mohammed Abbou, a man jailed, beaten and publicly reviled by the state for years, we could hardly pass for scores of colleagues happy to be seen talking, hugging or kissing him. All under the eyes of the plainclothes police trailing him and us in an intentionally obvious intimidatory manner.
/rɪˈvaɪl/ v [T] formal
to criticize someone strongly, or say unpleasant things to or about someone
The judge was reviled in the newspapers for his opinions on rape.
(Definition of revile verb from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
Even in a chamber as firmly controlled as the Palace of Justice, you wondered where the regime was, not least because Ben Ali’s mantra had been that the opposition was just a tiny minority, funded by hostile governments and manipulated by foreign activists.
Everywhere you went you met well educated and connected people talking, complaining, speculating, sharing banned information.
Ben Ali’s men worked hard to to manipulate the media or sell it off to his friends and family, then assiduously targeted bloggers and social media leaders. Then in his last throw of the dice the night before the collapse, Ben Ali did a bizarre u-turn on live tv, unblocked banned websites and promised media reforms.
/əˈsɪd.ju.əs/ adj formal
showing hard work, care and attention to detail
an assiduous student
The Government has been assiduous in the fight against inflation.
Before apartheid ended, I assiduously avoided buying South African products.
/əˈsɪd.ju.ə.snəs/ n [U]
(Definition of assiduous adjective from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
It was testimony to the regime’s belief in the significance of free expression. It believed the key to remaining in power lay in stopping Tunisians from talking, by hacking and deleting their e-mail accounts, bugging their phones, bringing trumped up criminal charges against them, or if all else failed, ordering a couple of thugs to give them a vicious kicking.
[trump sth up phrasal verb
phrasal verb [M]
to accuse someone of something they have not done in order to have an excuse for punishing them
/ˌtrʌmp tˈʌp/ adj [before noun]
She was imprisoned on trumped-up corruption charges.
(Definition of trump sth up from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
In the end the message they shared was that the emperor had no clothes. The debate goes on as to whether Twitter played the little boy to point that out first. Whatever, things will not be as they were.
People have been given a voice and they will not readily give it up. Those tweeters and photo sharers who worked hard to document the fall of the old regime will be doubly inspired by Friday’s triumph to track attempts by the new one to obstruct reform.
The system was bust before and is still bust, with or without Ben Ali, and still needs fixing.
[bust adjective ( BROKEN )
/bʌst/ adj [after verb] (US also busted) informal
I think my watch is bust.
(Definition of bust adjective (BROKEN) from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
Special circumstances apply in Tunisia that tend to rule out the weekend’s events as a model for revolutions anywhere, let alone as a harbinger of a Twittered Arab Spring.
/ˈhɑː.bɪn.dʒər/ /ˈhɑːr.bɪn.dʒɚ/ n [C] literary
someone or a thing that shows that something is going to happen soon, especially something bad
a harbinger of doom
(Definition of harbinger noun from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)]
The regime’s heart was unusually hollow, even by the standards of the region. Unlike Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak, Ben Ali did not buy up a broad core of support to keep him in power, but kept the ill-gotten gains of staggering corruption in the hands of a small coterie of friends and family.
The recent WikiLeaks release of a handful of secret diplomatic cables detailing the depth of this corruption was not news to Tunisians. What seemed to bite deeper was the fact that the US ambassador to Tunis treated it as a tolerable fact, no matter for concern.
Maybe that finally broke the Tunisians of the oft-cited Arab “habit” of living in denial about their problems, and inspired them instead to look among themselves for answers.
It at least raises the possibility that the Arab world’s social networks might yet do more than just be on hand to lubricate a stalled engine for change, driven by economic inequality and fuelled by opportunity.
Rohan Jayasekera is Associate Editor at Index on Censorship, which currently chairs the IFEX Tunisia Monitoring group of free expression advocacy organisations